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Ch. 3 Notes

Chemistry Of Life

Links !

Basic Chemistry, which is necessary to understand biology, many pages with quiz

Chemical Bonds (3 types), with descriptions using dogs and bones!

Water and its way of dissolving salt, animated demonstration

I.                    Nature of Matter

        Matter: Something that occupies space and has mass.

A. 3 states of matter: phases of Matter

            1.solid- ex. Ice

            2.liquid-ex water

            3. gas- ex: steam or water vapor

II.                 Composition of Matter (the Atom)

A.     Each atom has a central nucleus.

B.     Atomic structure composed of 3 kinds of subatomic particles.

1.      Proton: positive charged particles, located in nucleus, mass of 1AMU.

2.      Neutron: no charge, located in nucleus, mass of 1AMU.

3.      Electrons: negative charge, orbit the nucleus at high speeds, no mass to atom.

C.     Atomic Number=# of protons

1.      Determines the element, i.e. if you add or remove protons you will have a different element.

2.      # of  protons= #of electrons on periodic table

3.      Ions are particles with a + or charge because they have either more electrons or protons. (ex: NO3, NH 4)

D. Atomic Mass or Weight:

4.      # of protons = # neutrons= Atomic weight

D.     Isotopes have the same atomic # but different atomic mass.  (What subatomic particle is different in number?-neutrons because the weight has 2 change.)

III.             Chemical Compounds

A.     When elements combine to form substances consisting of 2 or more different elements.

B.     Types of chemical bonding: (elements will bond to become more stable; some are already stable)

1.      Ionic Bonds-transfer of electrons (NaCl)

2.      Covalent bonds- sharing of electrons (H20)

a.       Molecule: the smallest particle of a covalently bonded compound.

C.     Chemical Reactions- any process in which a chemical change occurs.

1.      Reactants- start reaction

2.      Products- made from reactan

Ex: 02 + 2H2 = H20

      C6H1206+02= CO2 + H20

Which are products? Reactants?

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