I. Nature of Matter
· Matter: Something that occupies space and has mass.
A. 3 states of matter: phases of Matter
1.solid- ex. Ice
3. gas- ex: steam or water vapor
II. Composition of Matter (the Atom)
A. Each atom has a central nucleus.
B. Atomic structure composed of 3 kinds of subatomic particles.
1. Proton: positive charged particles, located in nucleus, mass of 1AMU.
2. Neutron: no charge, located in nucleus, mass of 1AMU.
3. Electrons: negative charge, orbit the nucleus at high speeds, no mass to atom.
C. Atomic Number=# of protons
1. Determines the element, i.e. if you add or remove protons you will have a different element.
2. # of protons= #of electrons on periodic table
3. Ions are particles with a + or charge because they have either more electrons or protons. (ex: NO3, NH 4)
D. Atomic Mass or Weight:
4. # of protons = # neutrons= Atomic weight
D. Isotopes have the same atomic # but different atomic mass. (What subatomic particle is different in number?-neutrons because the weight has 2 change.)
III. Chemical Compounds
A. When elements combine to form substances consisting of 2 or more different elements.
B. Types of chemical bonding: (elements will bond to become more stable; some are already stable)
1. Ionic Bonds-transfer of electrons (NaCl)
2. Covalent bonds- sharing of electrons (H20)
a. Molecule: the smallest particle of a covalently bonded compound.
C. Chemical Reactions- any process in which a chemical change occurs.
1. Reactants- start reaction
2. Products- made from reactan
Ex: 02 + 2H2 = H20
C6H1206+02= CO2 + H20
Which are products? Reactants?