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Chapter 4 Notes

  • CHNOPS, the 6 most abundant elements in living things
  • Water and pH

Links !

Big molecules, notes on proteins, lipids, DNA, RNA

Genes, the Molecule of life, what they are made up of and models

Proteins, what makes them and why they are important

Water is important, chemistry with water

pH scale that moves, show acid, neurtal and base


Organic Compounds- contains the element carbon

Inorganic Compounds do not contain carbon (except for CO and CO2)


I.       Polymerization- Large compounds formed by joining the smaller of compounds

A.    Monomers- smallest, single unit

B.    Polymer- many monomers joined together


II.    Carbohydrates: Ratio 2:1

A.    Monosaccharides- singe sugar units (monomers!)

1.      Glucose- bodys main source of fuel

2.      Fructose- very sweet, found in fruits C6 H1206

3.      Galactose- found in milk products

B.    Disaccharides- two sugar units

1.      Sucrose, lactose, maltose

C.    Polysaccharides- multiple sugar units (complex carbos)

1.      Starch- plant source of fuel storage

2.      Glycogen- animals source of fuel storage _liver and muscles

3.       Cellulose- cell wall structure in plants

III. Chemical Processes

A.    Dehydration Synthesis- Forming of a compound with the loss of water.

B.    Hydrolysis Breaking down compounds with the additions of water.  Digestion!

IV.  Lipids

A.    Waxes, oils, fats, cholesterol

B.    Nonpolar compounds- hydrophobic

C.    Contains 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids each with a carboxyl group (COOH)

D.    Used for: padding, insulation, food storage, hormones, cell membranes

E.     Saturated Fats

1.      No double bonds in carbon chain

2.      Solid at room temperature

3.      Sources- plants        

F.     Unsaturated fats:

1.      One double bond in carbon chain

2.      Soft or oily at room temperature

3.      Sources- plants olive oil

G.    Polyunsaturated Fats:

1.      2 or more double bonds in carbon chain

2.      Oil at room temperature

3.      Sources- plants

V.     Proteins

A.    Used for: support, transport, substances enzymes, antibodies, and hormones

B.    Contains: Amino group (NH2) carboxyl group, and an R group

C.    Amino acids are the monomers

D.    Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds

E.     Enzymes:

1.      Biological catalysts (speed up reactions)

2.      Never used up; can be used again.

3.      Specify for the substrate. (substances)

VI.  Nucleic Acids

A.    2 kinds: DNA and RNA

B.    Functions: stores and transmit genetic information

C.    Nucleotides= monomers


Water and pH


* All organisms need water to survive. 


I.                   Properties of Water

A.    Universal solvent

B.    Polar molecule-like battery, it has + and charges

C.    Good heat capacity- keeps temperatures stable

D.    Expands at 4 degrees Celsius

E.     Surface Tension

1.      Adhesion- water sticking 2 something else other then water

2.      Cohesion-water is bonding with water

II.                Important terms

A.    Mixtures- 2 substances mixed- dirt, salt and pepper

B.    Solution- solute+ solvent

C.    Suspension water and non dissolved material ex: water and oil, blood

III.             Acids and Basis

A.    Acid- compounds that have hydrogen ions in the solution. H+

B.    Basis-compounds that have hydroxide ions in the solution.   OH-

C.    Moat chemical reactions take place in water of the cell.  Continual struggle to maintain homeostasis= neutral.

D.    PH scale measures the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions in the solution.

E.     O-6 more acid, 8-14 more alkaline(basic), 7= neutral

O= most acidic aliens blood

14= most basic liquid plumber


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