29 September 2003
Greece/ Rome Study Guide
Ch. 5 & 6
*Minoan civilization and the importance of its location- An archaeologist who was British unearthed the ruins called this civilization the Minoans, after the legendary King, Crete. The importance of the Minoans location was that they had contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia, which acquired them to get ideas and technology that they soon adapted to their own culture.
*Explain how Sparta's location was important.- The Spartans location was important because they were isolated from other Greeks. They looked down on trade and wealth forbade their own citizens to travel and had little use of new ideas for the arts.
*Trojan war- location- The Trojan War took place around 1250 B.C. and probably originated in an economic rivalry between the Mycenaeans and Troy. Troy controlled the straits, which was very important because they were narrow water passages that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas.
*geography of Greece created?-The Geography of Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula, which extends southward into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys. The Geography of Greece was created by farmers of the balers or settlers who did not create a large empire, but instead small city states.
* post Persian wars domination- After the Persian Wars, the Greeks developed an alliance with each other called the Delian League to meet further threats from Persia. Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece.
*Peloponnesian War-The Peloponnesian War was between Athens and Sparta. The Peloponnesian War lasted 27 years and engulfed all of Greece.
*Greek theater origins-The Greek plays evolved out of religious festivals, and were often based on popular myths and legends. There was little or no scenery in the theaters, and actors wore elaborate costumes and specialized masks.
*Alexander's achievements and empire-Alexanders most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture. Alexander supported and encouraged learning throughout his empire.
*center of Hellenistic world- The center of the Hellenistic world was Alexandria, which is located on the sea lanes between Europe and Asia. Its markets boasted a wide range of goods from Greek marble to Arabian spices to East African Ivory.
*geographic characteristics of Greece- The geographic shape of Greece helped to shape the river valley. Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula.
*oligarchy-Oligarchy is a form of government. Oligarchy resulted when merchants, farmers, and artisan emerged in some cities and challenged the landowning nobles for power, and came to dominate some city-states.
*democracy- Democracy is a type of government by the people. Athens moved slowly toward democracy, which has a different meaning for the ancient Greeks than it does for us today.
*Athens' golden age
*Augustus- Augustus ruled Rome from 31 B.C. to 14 A.D. Augustus hel[ed Rome recover from the long period of civil war.
*Julius Caesar- Julius Caesar was an able commander who combined soaring ambition with determination. Caesar dominated Roman politics with Pompey, one of Romes most brilliant generals.
*Hannibal-Hannibal was selected leader of the Carthaginian arm when his father died. Hannibal embarked on one of the most daring military expeditions in history, setting out from Spain and leading his troops in a march across the Pyrences, through France and over the peaks of the Alps into Italy.
*Jesus-Jesus was the founder of Christianity, which rose among Palestine as a new religion. Jesus was born about 4 B.C., near Jerusalem.
*Paul-Paul, was a Jew from Asia Minor who began the wider spread of Christianity, his new faith. Pauls missionary work set Vhristianity on the road to becoming a world religion.
*Odoacer- Odoacer was a Germanic leader. In 476, he ousted the emperor in Rome, which is an event referred to as the Fall.
*martyr-Martyrs are people who suffered or die for their beliefs. Over the centuries thousands of Christians became Martyrs.
*mercenary-Mercenaries were foreign soldiers s serving for pay. Roman armies used mercenaries to meet its need for soldiers and used them to defend borders.
*messiah- A messiah is a savior sent by God. Some Jews believed that a messiah would soon appear to lead the Jewish people to freedom.
*patrician- Patricians are members of the landholding upper class. The most powerful body was the senate, where 300 members were patricians.
*plebian-Plebeians were the farmers, merchants, artisans and traders who made up the bulk of the population. At first they had little influences on government, until a breakthrough came in 450 BC, when the government had the laws of Rome inscribed on 12 tablets and set it up in the marketplace.
*aqueduct- Aqueducts are bridge like stone structures that brought water from the hills into Roman cities. In Segovia Spain, a Roman aqueduct still carries water along a stone channel supported by tiers pf arches.
*heresy-Heresies were beliefs said to be contrary to official Church teachings. The church sent out missionaries both within the Rome empire and beyond to convert people to Christianity.
*legion-Rome fought without pay and supplied their own weapons. The legion was the basic unit, which was made up of about 5,000 men.
*republic-A republic was the thing of the people. The Romans thought a republic would keep the individual from gaining too much power.
*sect-At first Christianity remained a sect, which was a small group within Judaism. Then Paul from Asia Minor, began to spread the word of the new faith.