2 October 2003
Chapter 8 Outline
The Rise of Europe (500-1300)
I. The Early Middle Ages
A. A Land of Great Potential
1. The Germanic peoples that ended Roman rule in the West shifted the focus to the north, people there began to create a new civilization.
2. Europe lies on the western end of Eurasia, the giant landmass that stretches from present day Portugal all the way to Chine.
3. Europe had great untapped potential, such as dense forests, rich black earth for raising crops, and many rich minerals.
B. Germanic Kingdoms
1. The Germanic tribes who migrated across Europe were farmers and herders, and their culture greatly differed from the Romans.
2. The Germanics had no cities and no written laws, and they were governed by unwritten customs.
3. In 841, Clover who was a ruler with great energy and ability became the king of Franks, which was the strongest most successful kingdom set up by the Germanic tribes.
C. Islam: A New Mediterranean Power
1. Islam is a religion that emerged in Arabia in 632.
2. Muslims overran Christian kingdoms in North Africa and Spain, and then headed back into France.
3. In 732, at the battle of Tours, led by Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army.
D. The Age of Charlemagne
1. Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, was the founder of the empire which reached across France, Germany, and part of Italy.
2. Late in 800, Pope Leo III called on the Frankish king for help against rebellious nobles in Rome, and Charlemagne marched south and crushed the rebellious Romans.
3. Charlemagne tired to exercise control over his many lands, he did this by helping to spread Christianity to the conquered peoples on the outsides of his empire.
F. A Revival of Learning.
1. Enducation in Aachen, had declined so much that even the supposedly educated clergy were often ignorant.
2. Charlemagne hoped to achieve the goal of created a second Rome, by making efforts to revive Latin learning throughout his empire.
3. Charlemagne set up a palace school, where studies included grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.
G. Charlemagnes Legacy
1. Charlemagne died in 814, and after his death his empire feel apart, because his children battled for power for nearly 30 years.
2. In 843 Charlemagnes grandsons drew up the treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three different regions.
3. Charlemagne in his lifetime extended Christian civilization into northern Europe and furthered the blending of German, Roman. And Christian traditions.
H. New Attacks
1. After the defeat at Tours in 732m Muslim forces kept up their pressure on Europe and in the late 800s they conquered Sicily.
2. About 896, a new wave of nomadic people, the Magyars, settled in what is today Hungary; they overran eastern Europe and moved on to plunder Germany, parts of France, and Italy.
3. Then the Vikings were the most destructive raiders. The Vikings opened trade routes that linked northern Europe to Mediterranean lands.
II. Feudalism and the Manor Economy
A. A New System of Rule
1. Feudalism was a lossely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their large land holdings among the lesser lords.
2. In the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order; a new system called feudalism evolved.
3. A lord granted a vessel, or one who pledged service and loyalty to a greater lord, an estate or fief.
B. Lords, Vassals, and Knights
1. Everyone had a place in feudal society, and below the monarch were the most powerful lords, such as dukes and counts who held the largest fiefs.
2. In many cases a man was both a vassal and a lord, where he was a vassal to a more powerful lord above him and a lord to a less powerful vassal below him.
3. In the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order; a new system called feudalism evolved.
C. The World of Warriors
1. Many nobles trained from boyhood for a future occupation as a knight which was a mounted warrior.
2. Chivalry in the later Middle Ages was adopted as a code of Conduct.
3. Noblewomen became lord of the manor while her husband or father was off fighting.
D. The Manor
1. The heart of the midevil economy was the manor, or lordes estate.
2. Serfs were most peasants who were bound to the land.
3. Peasants and their lords were linked together by mutual rights and responsibilities.
E. Daily Life
1. For most peasants daily life was harsh.
2. Men, women, and even children worked long rigorous hours.
3. The peasant family did not have very nutritious diets, which consisted of mainly vegetables and bread.
III. The Medieval Church
- A Spiritual and Worldly Empire
1.After the fall of Rome, the Christian Church split into eastern and western churches, where the western church headed by the pope became known as the Roman Catholic Church.
2. The pope was the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and he also ruled the vast lands in central Italy, or the Papal States.
3. Medieval Christians believed that all people were sinners and were doomed to eternal suffering and the only way to avoid the tortures of hell was to participate in the sacraments, which are the sacred rituals of the Church.
B. The Church and Daily Life
1. Most Christians had no contact with the pope or the higher clergy, and only saw their local priest.
2. For peasants, religion was linked to the routines of daily life.
3. The tithe was a tax equal to a tenth of each persons income that the Church required all Christians to pay.
C. Monks and Nuns
1. Both men and women might withdraw from worldly life to become monks or nuns.
2. About 530 a monk named Benedict found the monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy.
3. Some monks even produced scholarly works of their own
D. Hildegard of Bingen: Adviser to Popes and Kings
1. The very first vision Hildegard recalled happened when she was a child of three years old.
2. Hildegard became a composer, writer, abbess, and an adviser to the great men and women of her day.
3. By the age of 14 she decided to become a nun.
E. Reform Movements
1. The very success of the medieval Church brought serious problems.
2. As its wealth and power grew, discipline weakened.
3. The clergy tended to be worldly, and many lived in luxury.
- Jews in Western Europe
1. Medieval Europe was home to numerous Jewish communities.
2. Jews spread into northern Europe, the became known as Ashkenazim pr German Jews.
3.Anti-Semitism is prejudice against Jews.
IV. Economic Expansion and Change
A. An Agricultural Revolution
1. By 1000, Europes economic recovery was well underway.
2. Peasants adapted new farming technology.
3. Peasants cleared land for farming and adopted the three-field system.
B. Trade Revives
1. Europes growing population needed goods that were not available on the manor.
2. Enterprising traders formed merchant companies that traveled in armed caravans for safety.
3. At first traders and customers met at local trade fairs, theses fairs took place near navigable rivers or where trade routes met.
C. A Commercial Revolution
1. To meet the needs of the changing economy, Europeans developed new ways of doing business.
2. Merchants developed a system of insurance to help reduce business risks.
3. Merchants joined together in an organization known as a partnership
- Role of Guilds
1. Merchants guilds or associations dominated life in medieval towns.
2. To become a guild member meant many years of hard work as an apprentice, or trainee.
3, They passed laws, levied taxes, and decided whether to spend funds to pave the streets with cobblestones.
- City Life
1. Medieval towns and cities were surrounded by high protective walls.
2. Medieval cities were a jumble of narrow streets lined with tall houses.
3. Larger cities might pass laws requiring butchers for example to dump their garbage on the edge of town.
- Looking Ahead
1. Western Europe was a different place from what it had been in the early Middle Ages.
2. Trade had put ideas as well as money into circulation.
3. New riches revised the social structure and politics too were changing