8 October 2003
MIDDLE AGES STUDY GUIDE
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).
*peasant-Most people of the manor were serfs, who had very harsh lives. Men, women, and children worked long hard hours from sunup to sundown.
*usury- Usury is the lending of money. To the clergy the profits that merchants and bankers made from usury was considered immoral.
*capital- Capital is money for investment. This money spurred the growth of banking houses.
*tithe-A tithe was a tax, that the church required all Christians to pay. The tithe was equal to one tenth of their incomes. The church used the tithe to help the poor.
*fief-A fief is an estate. Vassals were granted estates by their lords as the relationship between the two were established by customs and traditions.
*chivalry-Chivalry is a code of conduct that knights of the middle ages adopted. Chivalry required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word.
*charter-The charter was a written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town. Merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord, or the king for a charter to protect their interests.
*troubadour- Troubadours are wondering poets that adopted the view of raising women to a new states with the chivalry code that called for women to be protected and cherished. Troubadours had love songs that praise the perfection, beauty, and wit of women.
*manor economy- The manor, was the lords estate and it was the heart of the medieval economy. Most manors included one or more villages and the surrounding lands.
*how monks and nuns lived- The monks and nuns had to take vows of chastity which is obedience to the abbot. The monks and nuns lived in poverty.
*Why was church reform desired?- The success of the church brought many problems, and as its wealth grew the discipline weakened. Church reform was desired because of the growing corruption and moral decay of the Church.
*new agricultural technologies By about 800 peasants were using new iron plows that carved deep into the heavy soil of northern Europe. By 1000 Europes economic recovery was well underway, and it began with peasants adapting new farming technologies that made their fields more productive.
*defense of castles (moats, etc)- Castles during the Middle Ages, were lords homes that were built to withstand attacks. Their stronghold included a keep, or wooden tower, ringed by a fence.
*Battle of Tours- The Muslims were defeated at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Frankish warriors were led by Charles Martel defeated the Muslims army. The Christians saw the victory as a sign that god was on their side.
*vassals- vassals are lesser lords who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord. Vassals were exchanged for land.
*peasants- Most people of the manor were serfs, who had very harsh lives. Men, women, and children worked long hard hours from sunup to sundown.
*knights-a knight is a mounted warrior. Knights where nobles who trained from boyhood for the future of knighthood.
*lords- lords were below the monarch, and each lord had a vassal. In many cases a man was a vassal and a lord at the same time. First he was a vassal to a more powerful lord above him and then he was a lord to a less powerful vassal below him.
*why did the church have great power over the people? The church had great power over people because religion was linked to the routines of daily life. Villagers took pride in the church and the Church taught that men and women were equal before God.
*Cluniac reforms- The Cluniac reforms were the first monastery that tried to end the abuse of power.. They did this by weakening disciplined problems with power. This spread throughout the church.
*three field system- the peasants adopted this system to produce more food. They planted one field with grain, the second with legumes, like peas and beans, and the third fallow.
*merchant guilds- Merchant guilds were associations that dominated life in the medieval towns. Merchant guilds passed laws, levied taxes and decided whether to spend funds to pave the streets with cobblestones, build protective walls for the city, or to raise a new town hall.
*clergy - The Cluniac reforms were when Abbot Cluny stopped nobles interfering with the church.
*nobles- Noblewomen and noble men played active roles in the warrior society. The lady became the lord of the manor while her husband or father was off fighting.
*Charlemagne- Charlemagne was an old fashioned chief who loved battle and was a successful conqueror who reunited much of the old Roman Empire in Europe. One of Charlemagnes greatest accomplishments was spreading Christianity. Charlemagne tried to exercise control over his many lands and created a united Christian Europe.
*Leif Erikson- Leif Erikson was a Viking who set up a short-lived Viking colony on the continent of North America. This is around the time 1000.
*serf- a serf was a peasant who was bound to the land. They were not slaves and could not be sold, however they were not free men. They could not leave their mannor without their lords permission.
*excommunication-People who were excommunicated could not receive the sacraments, which are the sacred rituals of the Church. This punishment is the most severe, and the people who were excommunicated could not be buried in sacred ground.
*steel plow- The steel plow was one of the many improvements made in the agricultural industry during this time. The steel plow allowed serfs and peasants to work the land more easily and made it possible to finish faster.
*feudal system- The feudal system was a loosely organized system of rule in the Middle Ages. Under this system, there was a monarch, lords, and peasants. The peasants worked the land owned by the lords.
*Black Death- which regions most devastated?% population died? result?- The Black Death was a very overwhelming disease that killed one in every three people. The black death started in Messina, Sicily, and it soon spread over Italy, Spain, France, and the rest of Europe. About 7,000 people died a day in Egypt, and the numbers were far worse than any war in history.
*Magna Carta- The Magna Carta was a document that stated that a ruler could not abuse his powers over the people, and gave the people more rights. King John, in 1215 was forces to sign the Magna Carta.
*Concordat of Worms- The Church and the emperor accepted a treaty after struggling for almost 50 years. The treaty was known as the Concordat of Worms, and it stated that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority, while the emperor had the right to invest them with fiefs.
*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades- The crusades were holy wars that started in 1209. They were fought against the Albigensians in southern France because the Albigensians wanted to return the simple ways of the Church.
*Reconquista- The campaign to drive the Muslims from Spain was known as the Reconquista. This started when sever Christian kingdoms wanted to expand their borders and take over Muslim land.
*early jury system-The early jury system was developed under Henry II, of England. When traveling justices visited an area, local officials collected a jury, or group of men sworn to speak the truth.
*conflict between emperors and popes- The emperors believed that their rule should be over the Church, and the Church believed the same thing. The conflict began when knights believed they were honoring their ruler by killing someone while the Church thought this was wrong, and their beliefs conflicted.
A. 5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline.
The Middle Ages were in a time of decline for many reasons and they are:
1. Black Death and other plagues that were killing a numerous amount of people.
2. Disagreement and fighting between the Church and the Rulers.
3.In the Church, there were not many strong leaders.
4. The Feudal System cause many lower class people to live horrible lives.
5. There wasnt a true judicial system.
B. 3 long term effects of the crusades
1. The crusades created a higher level of trade.
2. The crusades created it so that money was greatly encouraged.
3. The Feudal power of the monarchs grew and increased greatly.