22 October 2003
Chapter 14 Outline
I. The Renaissance and Reformation (1300-1600)
a. The Renaissance in Italy
i. What was the Renaissance?
1. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areas.
2. Renaissance in Europe did not really break completely, with its medieval past.
3. Changes that took place in the way people viewed themselves and the world were the most important.
4. The Renaissance did produce new attitudes towards culture and learning.
ii. Italian Beginnings
1. The renaissance began in Italy in the mid 1300s then spread north to the rest of Europe. It reached its height in the 1500s.
2. Florences, perhaps more than any other city, came to symbolize the Italian Renaissance. Like ancient Athens it produced a dazzling number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists in a short space of time.
3. In the 1400s, the Medici family of Florence organized a banking business, The business prospered, and the family expanded into wool manufacturing mining, and other ventures.
1. Humanism is the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual
- Humanists were strong believers in education.
- Francesco Petrarch wrote many poems and things like that.
IV. A Golden Age in the Arts
- The Renaissance influenced many master art pieces and great sculptures.
- Leonardo Da Vinci was one of the greatest geniuses of all time.
- Da Vinci drew plans on flying machines and painted the Mona Lisa.
V. Writings for the New Age
- Many artists and poets had high political positions.
- Baldassare Castiglione created a book which stated what the ideal man and woman were like.
- Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince which told about experiences in politics.
The Renaissance Moves North
I. Artists of the Northern Renaissance
- Albrecht Durer was considered the German Leonardo Da Vinci.
- Jan and Hubert van Eyck were Flemish painters who painted religious scenes.
- Pieter Bruege, another Flemish artist, painted scenes of peasant life.
II. Northern Humanists
- Like the Roman Humanists, Northern Humanists stressed education.
- Desiderius Erasmus produced a Greek edition of the New Testament.
- Sir Thomas More wrote Utopia, which describes an idea of perfect society.
III. Literature of the Northern Renaissance
- Francois Rabelais, a French humanist, wrote the book Gargantua and Patagruel.
- William Shakespeare was a famous playwright who wrote Romeo and Juliet.
- He also wrote Richard III, Hamlet, Macbeth, and Othello.
IV. The Printing Revolution
- The Chinese had mastered the art of making paper and other things way before the Europeans did.
- Johann Gutenberg developed the movable type printing press in 1456.
- Printing impacted the world greatly, allowing things to be mass produced for the first time.
The Protestant Reformation
I. Abuses in the Church
- The Church had become corrupt and worldly, focusing on power rather than spirituality.
- Indulgences, or a pardon of sins in exchange for money, was one of the corruptions of the church.
- Many Christians opposed the practice of indulgences, and wanted to reform the church.
II. Luthers Protest
- Johann Tetzel advertised indulgences and ensured salvation to all who paid.
- Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on the wall of the church.
- Martin Luther was excommunicated from the church, but his popularity spread.
III. Spread of Lutheran Ideas
- Lutherans, followers of Luther, founded a new name for themselves: Protestants, or those who protested against the church.
- Peasants started to protest and eventually revolt against their governments.
- The peasants revolts had little effect, except on themselves.
IV. John Calvin
- John Calvin preached the idea that god already knows who will gain salvation.
- John Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva, which was a government ruled by church leaders.
- Calvinism spread throughout many countries and marked the beginning of the bloody religious wars that were to come.
Reformation Ideas Spread
I. Radical Reformers
- Different sects of new church sprang up as the Reformation continued.
- People who opposed newborn baptisms were named Anabaptists.
- Some radical Anabaptists were violently calling for weird social changes.
II. The English Reformation
- Henry VIII caused the final break with the Catholic Church.
- The pope refused to annul Henry VIIIs marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
- Henry VIII starts the Church of England and breaks away from the Catholic Church.
III. Elizabeth I Restores Unity to England
- Mary Tudor imprisoned Elizabeth I in 1554.
- Elizabeth Is popularity grew while she was locked up.
- Mary Tudor died and Elizabeth I ruled over England.
IV. The Catholic Reformation
- Pope Paul III helped reform the Catholic Church to stem the tide of Protestants.
- Inquisitions were held to root out heretics.
- The Catholic Reformation was very successful, but there were still many Protestants.
V. Widespread Persecution
- Catholics and Protestants killed each other and radicals like Anabaptists.
- Witch hunts caused many deaths, in which various women were tried for being a witch.
- Jews had many hardships, including being forced to live in ghettos.
VI. Looking Ahead
- The religious differences in Europe lead to many bloody battles.
- The government was usually controlled by that countrys religion.
- Religious decisions were often decided by politics.
The Scientific Revolution
I. Changing Views of the World
- Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the idea of heliocentricism, where the universe is centered on the sun.
- Copernicus was rejected and so was his theory until Tycho Brahe brought forth evidence of his theory.
- Galileo Galilei discovered that the earth moves, but he was forced to take back everything he said.
II. Newton Ties It All Together
- Isaac Newton discovered gravity by having an apple drop on his head.
- Isaac Newton published the book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
- Newtons discovery caused a spark in science that lead to many discoveries.
III. More Scientific Advances
- Alchemists believed that they could turn ordinary metals into gold.
- Andreas Vesalius published the first accurate book on anatomy.
- William Harvey discovered the circulation of blood.
IV. Bacon and Descartes.
- Bacon and Descartes discarded Aristotles scientific theories.
- Bacon used experiments to prove his theories.
- Descartes used human reason to prove his theories.