29 October 2003
Enlightenment and Renaissance
Source: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/vinci.html
This website is all about Leonardo da Vinci, who was best known as an artist, during the Renaissance time, but was also a paleontologist and evolutionary biologist. Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452. The website explains all about da Vincis life. Leonardo da Vinci created the masterpiece, the Mona Lisa, and was also known for being one of the best scientific minds of his time. This is a very good and informative website about Leonardo da Vinci. It explains about and even shows pictures of his handwritten manuscripts, where his scientifically and technical observations were recorded. Over 4,000 pages have survived thought the years, including one showing rock formations.
Leonardo da Vinci knew a great deal about the rocks and fossils found in north Italy. He made many observations on mountains and rivers and realized that rocks can be formed by deposition of sediments by water, while at the same time the rivers erode rocks and carry out their sediments to the sea. Leonardo also realized the law of superposition, which states that in any sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are those at the base. As you can see, this website is very informative, and detailed about the life and research of Leonardo da Vinci.
Source: Reformation, http://historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=109615
This webpage from the History Channel website is extremely informative. It describes Reformation as being a religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the sixteenth century. This website also explains that the Reformation started from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church. This webpage gives detailed information of the Reformation, including the background, the influence of Martin Luther, the economic, spiritual, and political motives, ferment, division, and warfare, and information on Calvin and the spread of Protestantism. Each section is very descriptive and detailed. The influence of Martin Luther section explains of how he wanted to reform within the church, because he was convinced that in certain matters of doctrine purity of the ancient church had been perverted by self-seeking popes and clergy. Martin Luther was issued a bull of excommunication and the Holy Roman emperor went against Luther. John Calvin, is described on this website as one who was considered by many as the greatest theologian of Protestantism. Calvin differed from Luther in the principal in the doctrine of predestination which is the foregone choosing by God of the elect to be saved, in the austerity of the life of the godly, and in the emphasis on theocratic government. This website is very useful in learning of the Reformation of Europe.
Source: Henry VIII Biography, http://idid.essortment.com/henryviiibiogr_rwev.htm
This website is an extremely good website of the biography of King Henry VIII. It is very informative and resourceful. Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491, and was the second son of Tudor King Henry VII. Henry was not counted until after the death of his older brother Arthur, in the year 1502. Henry VIII was the man whose break with the Pope led to the formation of the Anglican Church. Henry VIII declared that he was to be the supreme head of the new Church of England, after trying to get the Pope to allow a divorce between Henry VIII and his wife. The pope denied this divorce. The break from Rome had a very terrible effect which provoked the great northern uprising. As you can see, this website is very informative with information on King Henry VIII, and how his life and decisions greatly affected Europe.