5 November 2003
Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).
Annul-- Annul is to cancel a marriage. The Church lad did not permit divorce, so Henry VII asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherin in the year 1527.
Gravity-Gravity was given his dam
patron- A patron is a financial supporter of the Varts. Lorenzo was a patron who died in 1942, and he represented the Renaissance ideal.
Perspective- Renaissance artists learned the rules of perspective, which is making distant objects smaller then those close to the view. Artist painted scenes that appeared three dimensional. The artists also used shading to make objects look round and real.
Theocracy-Theocracy was set up by Calvin, and is a government run by Church leaders. Calvin lead the community and kept with his teachings by setting up a theocracy.
John Calvin- John Calvin was the most important reformer to follow Martin Luther. Calvin had a logical, razor-sharp mind, and his ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the Protestant Reformation. Calvin preached predestination.
Henry VIII-Henry VIII was the English king who created the final break with the Catholic Church. Henry wanted to end papal control over the English Church.
Leonardo da Vinci- Leonardo was one of the most brilliant painters or sculptors. He was born in 1452 and his exploring mind and endless curiosity fed a genius for invention. Leonardo thought of himself as an artists but his talents and accomplishment ranged over many areas.
Lorenzo de' Medici- Medici represented the ideal Renaissance man. He was a clever politician and held Florence together during difficult periods, and he also supported much of the arts financially.
Niccolo Machiavelli- Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a handbook that combined his personal experience of politics with his knowledge of the past to offer a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power. This handbook was called The Prince. Machiavelli stressed that the end justifies the means and urged rulers to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals.
Heliocentric- Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish scholar who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. In his book he proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered model of the universe.
humanism- The heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement which was humanism. Based on the study of classical culture, humanism focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues that had occupied medieval thinkers.
Indulgence- An indulgence was a pardon for sins committed during a persons lifetime. In the Middle Ages, the Churches had granted indulgences only for good deeds such as going on a crusade.
Predestination- Predestination is the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation. To Calvinists the world was divided into two kinds of people- saints and sinners.
recant -To recant is to give up your views. The Church tried to persuade Luther to do this, however Luther refused, instead he developed even more radical new doctrines.
Copenicus- Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish scholar who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. In his book he proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered model of the universe. His views were later challenged by such scientists as Newton and Galileo.
Durer- Durer helped to spread Italian Renaissance ideas in his homeland. Because of his wide-ranging interests which extended far beyond art, he is sometimes called the German Leonardo. Durer employed methods in paintings, engravings, and prints that portray the religious upheaval of his age.
Luther- Martin Luther was the man who triggered the revolt. He was a German monk and professor of theology. Martin Luther believed he was a sinner, and that he was doomed to eternal damnation. He also grew increasingly disillusioned with what he saw as the corruption and worldliness of the Church.
Newton Isaac Newton was a famous scientist that discovered the law of gravity. After his discovery of the force that keeps the planets in orbit as well as everything else on earth, he spent 20 years perfecting his theory before publishing it.
Petrarch-- Francesco Petrach was an early Renaissance humanist. He assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts that became available to the public.
Renaissance focus-The Renaissance was a focus on the rebirth of new ideas. It also reinforced creativity and change in political, social, economic, and cultural areas.
printing of reformation - After the invention of the printing press, books and pamphlets were produced in masses. This increased literacy throughout Europe and allowed people to spread ideas all over.
results of Reformation- The Reformation resulted in new religious groups and a better Church. People began to question the moral values of the Church and broke away.
causes of Renaissance- Italy was the center of Ancient Rome. The Renaissance started there because of the ancient architectural remains, antique statues, coins, and inscriptions. People developed new ideas during this time and wanted to renew the different aspects of ancient Roman culture.
Hobbes- Hobbes believed that people were naturally greedy, cruel, and selfish. Furthermore, he thought that in order to escape this type of life people should enter into a social contract, which was an agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society.
Locke- Locke believed every man was born with natural rights, including the right to life, liberty, and property. He also believed that a government with limited powers would be best because it would be accepted by all citizens.
Joseph II-- Joseph II was the most radical enlightened despot during this time. He traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their problems and how to improve their lives.
constitional govt.- The three political institutions in Britain that rose included the political parties, the cabinet, and the office of prime minister. These institutions were the beginning of Englands constitutional government, or government whose power is defined and limited by law.
enlightened despot- Enlightened despots were absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. These rulers were the ones who accepted the Enlightenment ideas.
natural laws- Scientific success led to people wondered if they could apply the newfound scientific knowledge to discover natural laws. Natural laws are laws that govern human nature.
natural rights- John Locke believed that people were born naturally moral and reasonable. He believed that man was born with natural rights, including the right to life, liberty, and property.
physiocrat- Physiocrats were other thinkers during this time that focused on economic reforms. These thinkers, like philosophes, looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system.
Bach- Johann Sebastian Bach wrote complex and beautiful religious works for the organ and choirs during this period. He was among the many that made new trends in music during this era.
Diderot- Denis Diderot labored for 25 years and finally produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia. His purpose for the volume was to change the general way of thinking by explaining the new ideas of the age.
Tom Paine- Tom Paine wrote the pamphlet called Common Sense that was published throughout Britain. It declared the English colonists independence from Britain and echoed the themes of the Enlightenment.
Rousseau- Jean-Jaques Rousseau believed that people are basically good, but become corrupted by the ways of society. He also thought that the ideal society would include people making the laws and obeying them willingly.
Robert Walpole- Robert Walpole was a Whig leader from 1721-1742. he molded the cabinet into a unified body and required all members to agree on major issues. He is called Britains first prime minister.
baroque- Baroque was the grand and complex style of courtly art and architecture. The paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement.
free market- The free market is the natural forces of supply and demand. Adam Smith argued that the free marked should be allowed to operate and regulate business.
laissez faire- The policy of laissez faire allowed business to operate with little or no government interference. This policy was urged by physiocrats who rejected mercantilism, which required governmental regulations to achieve a favorable balance of trade.
salon- Salons were informal social gatherings were writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas. Salons were a great way to share ideas and knowledge among groups of people.
social contract- Thomas Hobbes believed that people were born naturally greedy, cruel, and selfish. He thought that people should enter into a social contract or agreement where they gave up the state of nature for an organized society.