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Sarah Gaylord


Mr. Haskell


Period 3


24 November 2003


Revolutions and Nationalism

Study Guide Ch. 19 & 23

Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).

Ch. 19-The French Revolution and Napoleon

Suffrage- was another term used for the right to vote and after the election of the National Convention, suffrage was to be extended to all male citizens instead of just property owners.

sans-culottes- This was a term often associated with people of the Third Estate. The term actually came from the fact that the lower class wore long trousers because they could not afford the knee breeches that were worn by the upper classes.

abdicate- another name for stepping down from power. Napoleon abdicated after his enemies closed in on France in the 1800s.


deficit spending- Deficit spending is when the government spends more money than it takes in. Discontent grew when the deficit spending of France continued to increase and the peasants had to keep paying more and more taxes.


plebiscite- a ballot in which voters say yes or no to on an issue.  Napoleon had held a plebiscite to help him rise to power. Each time he held the ballot, the French strongly supported him.


Blockade- A blockade is when ports are shut off to keep people or supplies from moving in or out. After Napoleon blocked off Britains commerce, Britain in turn created a blockade of European ports to hurt France.

bourgeoisie-Bourgeoisie was the middle class. This class was part of the third estate, and included the prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufactures

nationalism- Nationalism is an extreme or aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to ones country. After the many reforms of Napoleon took place, there was a huge feeling of nationalism throughout France.

Émigré-Émigrés were nobles, clergy, and any others who had fled revolutionary France. These people reported many attacks on their privileges, property, religion, and even their lives when they told the horror stories of the French plague.


Louis XVI- Louis XVI was the grandson of Louis XV, who had ruled from 1715-1774. Louis XVI was very weak and indecisive as king, and made many bad choices that did not help France. Louis, was eventually beheaded.


Clemens von Metternich- Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria was the dominant figure in Congress. He wanted to restore the status quo, or the way things were in 1792.


Napoleon- Napoleon Bonaparte was called upon by politicians in France as total chaos threatened the country. He was a popular military hero at the time, but would soon outwit them all to become ruler of France.


Olympe de Gouges-was a journalist who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman. After the Declaration of the Rights of Man was made, many women were disappointed as it did not grat equal citizenship to women.

Rosbespierre- Maximilien Robespierre lived from 1758-1794. He was well known throughout Europe for his honesty and  studied law and even became a judge, but he resigned so as not to award the death penalty to anyone. In May of 1793, he forced the Girondists out of the National Convention because he was opposed to them and supported democratic reforms instead. In July of the same year, he was elected a member of the Committee of Public Safety.

Jacques Louis David- was the leading artist of this time period. He moralized many stirring events during this time, such as the Tennis Court Oath, and helped to shape the way future generations would look at the French Revolution


who denounced Fr. Rev? Why?- The rulers and nobles in Europe denounced the French Revolution.  They did this because they feared the spread of the French Plague.  They also increased border control because of this fear.


Reign of Terror-Robespierre was a chief architect of the Reign of Terror, which lasted from about July 1973 to July 1974. During the Reign of Terror, revolutionary courts conducted many quick trials where spectators would either cry Hail the Republic! or Perish the traitors! for the death sentence of the person on trial.

Napoleon annexed who?- Napoleon annexed the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany when he redrew the map of Europe. This helped him to gain more power for France in Europe.

Congress of Vienna-  After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna.  They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after 25 years of war.

Ch. 23- National Triumphs in Europe

Alexander II-Alexander the second came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War.  Alexander II agreed on reforms and in 1869, he issued a royal decree emancipating, or freeing the serfs.


Francis Joseph- An 18 year old who inherited the throne.  He ruled until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I.  He granted a new constitution that set up a legislature.


Giuseppe Garibaldi-was a revolutionary devoted to the cause of Italian unity.  Was a nationalist leader in the 1830s who funded Young Italy.  The goal of this secret society was, to constitute Italy, one free independent nation.


Otto von Bismarck- Bismarck came from Prussias Junker class which was made up of conservative landowning nobles. He served as a diplomat in Russia and France before King William I made him chancellor, which is also known as the prime minister in 1862. His policy was, blood and iron.


William II- In 1888, William II succeeded is grandfather as Kaiser.  The new emperor was supremely confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany.  In 1890, he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign.


Camillo Cavour- In 1852, Count Camillo Cavour was pointed out as the prime minister for Victor Emmanuel.  He came from a noble family but favored liberal goals.  He a was flexible, practical, crafty politician willing to use almost any means to achieve his goals.

Anarchist-An anarchist are people who want to abolish all government.  They would sabotage and use violence to get their way.

Refugee- A refugee is a person who flees their homeland to seek safety elsewhere.  Because the Jews were being so mistreated in Russia, they became refugees


Pogrom-Official persecution encouraged violent mob attacks on Jews which were known as pogrom.  Gangs beat and killed Jews and looted and burned their homes and stores.  


Realpolitik- Realpolitik was a term used for realistic politics based on a tough-minded evaluation of needs of the state. Bismarcks success was in part due to his strong will and mastering of these views. He believed that the ends justified the means.


Zemstvo- Elected assemblies were called zemstvos and were made responsible for matters such as road repair, schools and agriculture.  At the local level, at least, Russians gained some experience of open discussion and self-government.

economic development in Germany- the economy in Germany rose and fell for a while. It changed during many periods including WWI and Russias intolerance of Jews.

Nationalism threatened? who? (which country the most) National united many people in Germany and Italy, but it also undermined old empires in Eastern Europe.  The Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that included diverse ethnic groups.  Nationalist feelings among theses subject people contributed to tensions in Europe.  The Hapsburgs were believed to be a major threat to the nationalism.

Revolution of 1905- Workers overthrew local governments in some incidents, and many peasants revolted and demanded land. The strikes happened after the incident of Bloody Sunday.  The results of the revolution were that the manifesto won over the moderates, leaving socialist isolated.  Divisions between these groups helped the czar who had no intention of letting strikers revolutions and rebellious peasants challenge him.

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