Chapter 21 Outline
I an age of ideologies
A. preserving the old order
1. conservatives consisted of monarchs and members of their government, noble landowners, and church leaders
2. conservative ideas appealed to peasants and wanted to maintain the political and social order that under attack during the French Revolution.
3. Conservatives believed that a constitutional government and the protection of natural rights could lead only to chaos.
B. the liberal challenge
1. the liberals embraced Enlightenment ideas and spoke out against divine-right monarchy, established churches, and the old aristocracy.
2. liberals spoke mostly for the middle class and their ideas are sometimes referred to as bourgeois liberalism
3. liberals believed in governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers, as well as elected rulers by the people.
C. nationalist stirrings
1. unifying and gaining independence for people with a common national heritage was a major goal of nationalists in the 1800s.
2. establishment of a homeland for nationalism had negative effects as it bred intolerance and led to persecution of national or ethnic minorities.
3. autonomy, or self-rule, was achieved in the Ottoman empire when rebellions occurred.
D. challenges to the old order
1. revolts along the southern fringe of Europe challenged the governmental rule of many countries.
2. in Spain, Portugal, and the Italian states, such rebels demanded constitutional governments.
3. many of the rebels who made such demands were destroyed by armies and attacks.
II. to the barricades
A. France after the restoration
1. the Charter of French Liberties was a constitution issued when the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne
2. the constitution created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press.
3. ultraroyalists were supporters who despised constitutional government, and wanted the old regime restored.
B. The French revolution of 1848
1. in the 1840s, radicals formed secret societies to work for a French republic.
2. an economic slump shut down factories, harvests were poor, and many people lost their jobs while the price of food went up.
3. angry crowds took to the streets during February Days, and cities were destroyed during this revolution.
C. Europe catches cold
1. most of the uprisings were suppressed, because, as Metternich said, When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.
2. in 1815, the Congress of Vienna had united the Austrian Netherlands and the Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch king.
3. the new arrangement was resented, especially by the Belgians, because the two peoples lacked anything in common.
D. the springtime of the peoples
1. the Revolution in France started these revolts, although discontent had been building up for years.
2. there were many different sources of unrest; the middle-class wanted a greater share of political power, while workers demanded relief from the misery of the spreading Industrial Revolution.
3. in the Italian states, Nationalists wanted to end domination fo Italy by the Austrian Hapsburgs.
E. looking ahead
1. the uprisings failed because revolutionaries did not have mass support.
2. in 1848, a growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reform.
3. in the future, ambitious political leaders would unify Germany and Italy, and workers would gain forms through unions and the ballot box to increase their voting power.
III. Latin American wars of independence
A. climate of discontent
1. the Revolution fever of Western Europe had spread to Latin America in the 1700s.
2. discontent in Latin America, however, was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that emerged during the 300 years of Spanish rule.
3. in the 1700s, some creoles read the works of Enlightenment thinkers and believed that these ideas were true.
B. Haitis struggle
1. Haiti was Frances most valued possession in the 1700s.
2. French planters owned great sugar plantations worked by about a half million enslaved Africans, thus bringing in a great profit.
3. in the 1790s, French revolutionaries were debating ways to abolish slavery, thus creating a problem in Haiti.
C. Toussaint LOuverture
1. Toussaint LOuverture was born into slavery in Haiti, and learned how to speak French, the African language of his ancestors, and even how to read.
2. he read works of French philosophes, and was determined to be a brave leader and bring his people to liberty.
3. his intelligence and military skills earned him the position of leader in 1791 when a revolt broke out.
D. A call to freedom in Mexico
1. el Grito de Delores was the cry of Dolores, calling the people of Mexico to fight for independence and liberty.
2. many poor Mexicans rallied to Father Hidalgo who made the cry for freedom
3. Hidalgo was rejected when he wanted to end slavery and plead for reforms to improve conditions for Native Americans
E. New republics in central America
The land of the Farmers was incremental
1. Spanish-ruled lands in Central America declared independence in the early 1820s. jkldw jkds e jskewnnf la; this is how I
2. local leaders set up a republic called the United Provinces of Central America after Iturbides overthrow.
3. the union was soon broken up
F. Revolutions in south America
1. a widespread drive for independence was made in the 1800s after discontent among the creoles grew.
2. Tupac Amaru was the strongest challenge by Native Americans, and he claimed descent from the Incan royal family.
3. in 1780 Tupac Amaru organized a revolt, and it led to the king ordering officials to look into the system of forced labor and eventually abolished it. S TH thie way I want to live the way it is fto be that
G. Independence for Brazil
1. after Napoleons armies conquered Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil
2. the king introduced many reforms, including free trade, to the people of Brazil
3. no revolution or military campaigns were needed to win independence for Brazil.