17 December 2003
Industrial Revolution Study Guide
Ch. 20, 21, and 22
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).
Enclosure: is the process of taking over and fencing off land that was formerly shared by peasant farmers. Rich landowners had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and they increased wool output by doing so in the 1500s.
factories (How they worked)- factories brought together machines to produce large quantities of goods. The workers worked day and night in factories with machines. During this period the machines either ran by windmills, coal, or running water.
Turnpike: turnpikes were privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them. many capitalists invested in turnpike and charged people so that they would use the road which was a short cut to the place they needed to get to.
Urbanization: urbanization is a movement of people to cities. The development of factories caused rapid urbanization during the Industrial Revolution.
Utilitarianism: utilitarianism is the idea that the goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens. By the 1800s, Jeremy Bentham preached this idea first.
Socialism: socialism is a government where the people as a whole would own and operate all of the means of production, instead of individually or privately. Socialism was a radical solution to end injustice and poverty.
Communism: Karl Marx proposed the idea of socialism during the 1800s. it is a form of socialism that sees a class struggle between employers and sees employers as inevitable.
Proletariat: the proletariat is another name for the working class. Karl Marx said that the proletariats were the have-nots and the bourgeoisie were the havs.
Michael Faraday: Faraday created an electric generator called the dynamo. The dynamo created an electric current by rotating a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet.
John Wesley: Founded the Methodist church. He stressed the need for a personal sense of faith.
Karl Marx: Karl Marx was a German philosopher who proposed the idea of Communism. He condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism. Communism is based on the class struggle between employers and sees employers as inevitable.
Thomas Malthus: Thomas Malthus writings about population shaped the economic thinking for generations to come. He predicted that the population would eventually outpace the food supply.
John Stuart Mill: John Stuart Mill argued that a persons actions are right and just if they promote happiness, but wrong if they cause pain. Mill was a follower of Bentham.
James Watt: Watt made revisions that improved the steam engine. His new version used coal instead of water power to run.
Abraham Darby: Darbys family was one of the leading families that were led in developing the iron industry in Britain. Darby began to use coal instead of wood for smelting iron.
David Ricardo: David Ricardo noted that when the wages were high, families had more children. With more children, the supply of labor also increased, but wages were lowered and more people were unemployed. \
Jeremy Bentham: Jeremy was one of the first people to preach the ideal of utilitarianism. He believed that the laws or actions should be judged by their utility.
Robert Owen: Owen was a poor Welsh boy who later became a successful mill owner. He was one of the first people to not use child labor to support his business.
Britain's population growth (why did it happen?)- Many people came to the cities and left their old lives of being a farmer. There were more jobs offered in the mines and factories than in the agriculture business.
Importance of coal to Industrialization- Coal was very useful during this time period. It was used to run many of the new technologies that were being developed, such as steamboats and trains. It was also used to smelt iron, which helped in the development of more machinery.
Agricultural Revolution- during the agricultural revolution, many things happened that helped the industry. Dikes were built to reclaim land from the sea. Farmers also combined smaller fields into larger ones to make better use of the land. They also used the fertilizers from their livestock to renew the soil.
textile industry: one of the first industries that was affected during the Industrial Revolution was the textile industry. New machines were constantly developed that sped up the productivity of many products, and it increased the productivity of weaving and thread for everyday use.
laissez faire economics (Adam Smith)- Adam Smith believed that a free market would eventually help all classes, not just the rich, in a free market, the exchange of goods and services is unregulated. Laissez-fair economics is precisely this type of economy, where the government is hands off.
Ideology: ideology was a system of thought and belief. Many ideologies clashed in Europe into a period of turmoil that lasted more than 30 years.
universal manhood suffrage: Liberals supported the idea of universal manhood suffrage. Basically, all adult men were given the right to vote, and there were social reforms. Women did not have this right.
Autonomy: autonomy is the name given to self rule of a country or government. In the Ottoman Empire, the Serbs were Balkan people who revolted and took over the government, achieving autonomy.
el Grito de Dolores: El Grito de Dolores means the cry of Dolores. This name was given to the speech given by Father Hidalgo when he talked about taking back the rural parish of Dolores.
February Days: during February days, the government was taking steps to silence critics and prevent public meetings. During this time, a common sight would be iron railings, overturned cars, paving stones, and toppled trees blocking the streets of Paris.
Frankfurt Assembly: The Frankfurt Assembly was a group of men from many German states who met to create a constitution for Germany as a whole. They assembly was dissolved by the 1800s under threat from the Prussian military.
Simon Bolivar: Bolivar was sent to Europe to complete his education and became a strong admirer of the ideas of the French Revolution. He liberated South America from Spain.
Miguel Hidalgo: Father Hidalgo was the man who gave the famous speech known as El Grito de Dolores, or cry of Dolores. He was captured and executed and his followers scattered.
Louis Kossuth: Kossuth led Hungarian nationalists who demanded an independent government. They called for an end to serfdom and a written constitution to protect all of their basic rights.
Tupac Amaru: Amaru organized a revolt. During the revolt, a large army crushed the rebels and killed Amaru.
Louis XVIII: Once Louis XVIII was restored to the throne, he sensibly signed the Charter of French Liberties. The charter was a constitution that created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press.
John Stuart Mill: John Stuart Mill was an influential English liberal. He urged for equal rights for women.
Toussaint L' Ouverture: Toussaint L Ouverture was born into slavery in Haiti. He was taught to speak both French and the African language of his ancestors. His master also allowed him to learn how to read. After reading many books, Toussaint was determined to become a brave leader and bring his people to liberty.
Louis Napoleon: Louis Napoleon was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. He attracted the working class vote by presenting himself as a man who cared about social issues such as poverty. In the vote, Napoleon won. However, once he was named king, Napoleon named himself emperor and took the title of Napoleon III.
Louis Philippe: Louis Phillippe was also called the citizen king because he owed his throne to the people. He got along well with the liberal bourgeoisie, and dressed the same way they did. Under his rule, Louis extended suffrage, but only to Frances wealthiest citizens. In this way, the lower and middle class benefited.
Clemens Von Metternich: Clemens Von Metternich had dominated Austrian politics for more than thirty years. When the students rose up and took to the streets in revolt, Metternich tried to suppress them. When the workers soon rose up in support, Metternich resigned and fled in a disguise.
Pedro: Dom Pedro was left to rule Brazil when the king returned to Portugal. He became emperor of an independent Brazil, and accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press and religion, as well as an elected legislature. The country remained a monarchy until 1889, when political and social turmoil caused it to become a republic.
Revolts in Austrian empire: revolts in the Austrian empire forst broke out in Veinna, and took the government by surprise. Clemens von Metternich tried to suppress the students who took to the streets. When workers rose up to support the students, Metternich resigned. The Austrian emperor promised reforms, and revolution quickly spread throughout the empire.
goals of nationalists: The nationalists at this time wanted to end domination of Italy by the Austrian Hapsburgs. Also, their goals were related to liberal reforms like the constitutional government.
conservative ideology in Europe:- the conservatives included monarchs and members of their government, noble land owners, and church leaders. They supported the political and social order that came under attack during the French Revolution.
interchangeable parts: interchangeable parts were identical components that could be used in place of one another. They simplified assembly and repair, and improved the efficiency of the factory system to produce products.
assembly line: the assembly line was introduced to improve efficiency of the factory and its products. On an assembly line, workers would add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next. This lowered the price of goods, and made production faster and cheaper.
corporation: corporations are businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. Corporations began showing up in the late 1800s, and allowed businesses to expand according to the amounts of capital they acquired.
cartel: a cartel is an association that formed to fix prices, set production quotas, and divided up markets. The association is composed of a group of large corporations.
women's suffrage: many groups that were dedicated to votes for women emerged in the late 1800s. However, suffragists faced intense oppositions from critics who claimed women were too emotional to be allowed to vote. They believed that the womans place was in the home and not in the government. In other places outside of Europe, women were quickly gaining their right to vote.
racism: racism is the belief that one racial group is superior to another. By the late 1800s, the claim was being made that the success of western civilization was largely due to the supremacy of the white race. These ideas were later used to justify global expansion of European power.
social gospel: many Protestant churches in Europe and the United states were backing social gospel, which was a movement that urged Christians to social service. Reforms included those in the areas of health care, housing, and even education. These services helped to spread the Christian belief, as well as help the community.
romanticism: William Wordsworth was one man who contributed to the movement called romanticism. This period lasted from about 1750 to 1850, and shaped western literature and arts. New verse forms, bold colors, swelling sounds of orchestra, and strong emotions were expressed during this period.
realism: realism was a new artistic movement that began by the mid-1800s. in realism, painters and writers tried to express the world as it was. They often portrayed the harsher aspects of life in cities or vilagges. Many writers and artists were committed to improving the lives of the unfortunate people they described in their works.
impressionism: impressionism was a new movement that began by the 1870s. Instead of trying for realism, where a camera could do a better than those portraying the picture, impressionists tried to capture the first impression made by a scene or object on the viewers eye.
Social Darwinism: Darwin never promoted any social ideas, but some thinkers used his beliefs and theories to support their own opinions about society. Social Darwinism applies the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition. Followers of this belief often also supported racism.
Darwin: Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years. He produced the theory of natural selection to show how the long process of evolution is made possible. Darwin was highly criticized for his theories, but even today we study them.
Joseph Lister: Joseph Lister, an English surgeon, discovered how antiseptics prevented infection. The use of his methods, such as having the surgeon wash their hands before operating and sterilizing instruments, helped to drastically reduce the rate of deaths from infections. factory life ( How it changed the lives of workers): factories forced small children and women to get jobs to help pay for expenses. In these factories, the workers were abused. They worked long hours, were not allowed sick days, and there were no safety preventions so many workers were injured and even died. Family life declined and wages decreased as a result of factories.